The indicative mode (mode indicatiu) is used to express real events. This mode consists of the following simple tenses: present, imperfet, passat (simple i perifràstic) and futur. There are also the following compound tenses: perfet, passat anterior (simple i perifràstic) and futur compost. This article treats all tenses used in the indicative mode in Catalan.

Simple tenses

Present Present

The present (in Catalan: present) expresses actions or states that take place on the moment of speaking. For example:

Ana canta una canço.
Ana sings a song.

The present is also used to enunciate habits, universal truths and facts. For example:

Cada dia em menjo un entrepà.
Everyday I eat a sandwich.
Sempre hi ha molta gent al centre de Barcelona.
There are always many people in the centre of Barcelona.
La Terra gira al voltant del Sol.
The Earth spins around the Sun.

Imperfect Imperfet

The imperfect (in Catalan: imperfet) expresses an action situated in the past, without knowing if it has finished already. It is also used to express habits of the past. For example:

A Figueres plovia molt.
In Figueres it rained a lot.
Àlex llegia molts còmics quan era petit.
Alex used to read many comics when he was small.

Simple past Passat simple

The simple past (in Catalan: passat simple) expresses an action situated in the past that has finished entirely. For example:

Ahir aní a la ciutat.
Yesterday I went to the city.
L'altre dia estudiàrem la gramàtica catalana.
The other day we studied Catalan grammar.

Periphrastic past Passat perifràstic

The periphrastic past (in Catalan: passat perifràstic) is interchangable with the simple past, but is more informal. It is formed by the auxiliar verb anar (to go) in indicative present and the infinitive of the verb involved. For example:

Ahir vaig anar a la ciutat.
Yesterday I went to the city.
L'altre dia vam estudiar la gramàtica catalana.
The other day we studied Catalan grammar.

Future Futur

The future tense (in Catalan: futur) expresses actions that will take place in the future. For example:

La setmana que ve prepararé una paella.
Next week I will prepare a paella.

Compound tenses

The compound tenses are formed by the auxiliar verb haver (to have) and the participle of the verb in question.

Present perfect Perfet

The present perfect of the indicative (In catalan: perfet de l'indicatiu) expresses an action that just took place. It is formed by the auxiliar verb haver in present tense and the participle of the conjugated verb. For example:

Aquest matí m'he despertat de bon humor.
This morning I woke up with a good mood.

Anterior past Passat anterior

The anterior past (in Catalan: passat anterior) is rarerly used nowadays. It can be used to express an action that finished just before another action described in another past time. There is a simple and periphrastic conjugation. The simple variant is formed using the auxiliar verb haver in simple past. For example:

Quan haguí acabat els meus deures, sortí amb els meus amics.
When I had finished my homework, I went out with my friends.

The periphrastic variant uses the auxiliar verb in the periphrastic past construction. For example:

Quan vaig haver acabat els meus deures, vaig sortir amb els meus amics.

Pluperfect Plusquamperfet

The pluperfect (in Catalan: plusquamperfet) indicates an action that took place before another past action already expressed. It is formed using the auxiliar verb in imperfect tense.

Quan vaig arribar a casa, Carles havia sortit per a l'institut.
When I got home, Carles had left for school.

Future perfect Futur perfet

The future perfect (in Catalan: futur perfet) expresses a future action that will be finished at the moment the statement refers to. For example:

Demà ja t'hauràs recuperat.